Balinese People in Religion and Culture (a brief explanation)
HISTORY AND LANGUAGE
Bali comes from the word “Bal” in Sanskrit means “strength”, and “Bali” means “sacrifice” which means that we do not forget our strength. So that we are always ready to sacrifice. Bali tribe is divided into 2, namely: Bali Aga (original Balinese people used to live in the area Trunyan), and Mojopahit Bali (Balinese Hindu / Balinese descent Mojopahit).
Bali mostly using Balinese and Indonesian language, mostly Balinese people are bilingual or even trilingual Bahasa Bali is divided into two, namely, the language that is the language of Bali Aga pronunciation is more rugged, and the Balinese language pronunciation Mojopahit.yaitu language is more subtle. . English is the third language and the primary foreign language for the Balinese people are influenced by the needs of the tourism industry.
Religion embraced by the majority of Balinese are Hindus about 95%, of the population of Bali, while the remaining 5% are adherents of Islam, Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Hinduism is the purpose of life to achieve life balance and peace of outward and inward. Citizens Hindu Balinese believe the one God in the Trinity concept form, ie a form of Brahman (the creator), a form of Vishnu (the protector and maintainer), as well as the form of Shiva (the destroyer). Places of worship are called temples retreat. Ancestral shrines called buffering. Hindu religious scriptures are the Vedas which originated from India.
Guidance in the teachings of Hinduism namely: (1). Tattwa (philosophy of religion), (2). Ethical (moral), (3). Ceremonies (yadnya). Retreat there are 5 kinds of ceremonies (five yadnya), namely (1). Human Yadnya ceremony pregnancy until adulthood. (2). Pitra Yadnya ceremony devoted to the ancestral spirits. (3). Gods Yadnya ceremony held at temples / shrines family. (4). Sage yadnya the inauguration ceremony in the framework of a religious ritual leader. (5). Bhuta yadnya the ceremony for the spirits around people that annoy humans.
The feast of the people of the Hindu religion is the celebration of Nyepi whose implementation Saka new year on the 1st of month 10 (kedasa), except that there are also Galungan, brass, saras wati, tumpek landep, tumpek uduh, and Siwa ratri. People who died in the Hindu ceremony held sanggat Ngaben deemed essential to free the spirits of people who have passed away from worldly ties to heaven. Cremation itself is cremation.
Balinese culture is essentially based on values rooted in the teachings of Hinduism. Balinese people recognize the difference (rwa bhineda), which is often determined by factors of space (rural), time (kala) and the real conditions in the field (patra). Village concept, kala, patra and causing Balinese culture is flexible and selective in accepting and adopting external cultural influences.
Balinese culture actually uphold the values of balance and harmony of the human relationship with God (Parhyangan), human relations (pawongan), and the human relationship with the environment (palemahan), which is reflected in the teachings of Tri Hita Karana (three causes of welfare). If humans are able to maintain a balanced and harmonious relationship with all three of these aspects of the well-being will be realized.
In addition to the values of balance and harmony, in the culture of Bali is also known for the concept of tri Shemaiah the Balinese people’s perception of the time. According to the Balinese past (athita), the present (anaghata) and future (warthamana) is a time series that can not afford to be separated from one another. Human life at this time is determined by the results of past deeds, and actions today determine the lives in the future. In the legal doctrine of karma phala mentioned about causation of a deed, a good deed will get a good result. Vice versa, the bad things or a bad outcome is also not good for the concerned. Some important examples of positive values instilled in the culture of Bali:
1. Etiquette: manners habits agreed that in the interaction between the human environment.
2. Nguopin: mutual aid.
3. Ngayah or ngayang: voluntary work for religious purposes.
4. Manners: customary in polite social intercourse.
Withdrawal in the lineage leading to the Balinese people are patrilineal. Caste system greatly influence the course of a marriage, because of a higher caste woman marries a lower caste man is not justified because there is a deviation, which would shame the family and bring down the prestige of the entire caste of female children. In some areas of Bali (not all regions), applies customary dowry submission (petuku luh), but now it is mainly among family learned men, had disappeared.
Indigenous settled after marriage retreat affect kinship relationships within a society. There are 2 kinds of indigenous settled that often apply the traditional retreat is customary justify virilokal newlyweds settled around the center of the residence of the husband’s relatives, and tribal customs that define neolocal are newlyweds living alone place the new residence.
In Bali, there are 3 main clan groups (triwangsa) are: Brahmins as master of ceremonies, the Knights are: group-specific klompok like arya Kepakisan and Jaba is a religious leader.
Livelihood Bali diverse population which includes work as: farmers, craftsmen, clerks, merchants, and a variety of services, particularly in the field of tourism. Livelihood systems. In prehistoric times until today apparently farm which later evolved in the broad sense, including plantations, although a very universal thing, the influence of Hinduism looks of all living systems is associated with Hinduism, it means in meeting the needs of life always associated with the worship of God Almighty Esa. Farming is the main livelihood of life were largely people of Bali. Type of agriculture include agricultural fields and plantations. In the farming system in Bali,
This seems to present a very famous irrigation system subak was always associated with the Hindu religion. Subak is a distribution management system of agricultural irrigation flow typical of Balinese society. This system has been known since hundreds of years ago and proved to increase agricultural productivity in Bali. Through the Subak system, farmers received an allocation of water in accordance with the conditions set by residents meeting. Philosophically, the existence of Subak is a manifestation.
SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION (DESA)
Accommodate and legalize Village Government Law Ada. Village Government in the implementation of existing and stratified from the starting level of the Basic Law (Constitution) until the operational rules for its implementation, there is no apply directly indirectly, depending on the characteristics of a place and time where the Customary Law. Village, a whole community of people living in bali includes 2 terms, namely: traditional village and village offices (administrative). Both are a union territory or in conjunction with any religious tradition, while the village is the unity of the administrative offices. Traditional village activities focus on the areas and religious ceremonies, while centered on the village office administration, governance and development.